Approximately 2% of Cambodians are infected, which
is low compared with up over 30% in some African countries. Globally
persons are infected by way of: vaginal sex (75%), anal sex (7%),
mother to baby (7%), injecting drugs (7%), blood transfusions (3%).
The actual individual one off sexual act risk of acquiring HIV is
very low (less than 1%), but this risk increases by the number of
sexual encounters. High-risk groups are more likely to be infected:
prostitutes (40%) army/police (8%). Condoms should always be used.
Note that the Number One condom (size 48mm) is made for the Cambodian
male; Europeans and Americans with larger penises should use a larger
sized brand (52mm) such as Durex to prevent condom breakage. HIV
testing should only be done in a reputable clinic; some local clinics
use inferior tests giving false results. HIV antiretroviral drugs
are available in Phnom Penh and are cheap.
The prevalence among the Cambodian people is 13%.
For the visitor the primary risk is through sexual contact, although
for the person staying longer than 6 months the risk is also by
faecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis B vaccination does
not work in 10 - 20% of those vaccinated; a blood test is therefore
necessary to determine if you have protective antibodies or not.
Gonorrhoea, chlamydia, gardnerella, herpes, candida,
ureaplasma, trichomonas, and other conditions can give a penile
discharge, or not. Symptoms may be similar, different, or none.
Treatment however is different for each disease. Do not self medicate
- prostatitis and sterility are consequences if you do. See a doctor
specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual diseases.
When the quality and quantity of a discharge changes,
time to see a doctor. Candidiasis or thrush is more likely if tight
clothes are worn especially in a hot humid country. Diabetes, hormones,
antibiotics and lowered immunity are other causes. Trichomonas is
a cause of a heavy discharge and can be caught from moist towels.
Gardnerella typically gives a fishy odour most noticeable after
sexual intercourse. As 50% of women infected with gonorrhoea or
chlamydia have no discharge and are unaware they are infected, these
diseases should also be screened for at the same time as examining
the discharge; failure to do so could lead to infertility.